Cervical Rib & Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Cervical rib is a congenital abnormality where an extra rib arise from the seventh cervical vertebra which is located above the first rib.  Incidence : 0.3 - 0.8% of the population  60% remain asymptomatic Bilateral in 70% of cases More common in women 10% develop thoracic outlet syndrome It is…

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Horner’s Syndrome

We have heard Horner's syndrome like a thousand times during our med school years, but today I came across something interesting. I was amazed when I got to know that we could localize the site of the lesion just by analyzing anhidrosis. Okay then, let's get into more details. Horner's…

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Postoperative Cognitive Impairment (POCD)

Cognitive disorders are common during the postoperative period, among them postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive impairment has the highest incidence. Postoperative delirium is an acute, fluctuating disturbance of consciousness characterized by disorientation, impaired focus, attention. perception and behavior following a surgery. POD takes a longer time to develop than POCD…

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Complications Of Blood Transfusion

Even though certain precautions are taken prior to blood transfusion, still blood transfusion reactions are inevitable. These reactions can vary from a mild presentations like fever, chills and pruritus to severe / potentially life threatening complications which we will discuss later. These adverse reactions are multifactorial. Most feared complication of…

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Methods Of Intravenous Access

There are number of routes to establish an intravenous access. Some of them are easier to perform and seen frequently in the clinical setup, but some are used in special circumstances and requires greater skill for insertion. Methods Of Intravenous Access Peripheral venous catheter Central venous catheter Tunneled lines Subcutaneously…

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The Salivary Glands

There are three large paired salivary glands and several small salivary glands that open into the oral cavity Parotid gland Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Parotid Gland Largest of all salivary glands Location : Overlies the ramus of the mandible ; Anterior and inferior to the external auditory canal ; Filling the…

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Disorders Of Acid Base Balance – Overview

pH of our body is maintained at a narrow range of 7.45 - 7.45 A buffering system of our body helps to maintain this range.  This buffering system consists of acids, bases and buffers. There are two compensatory mechanism Renal compensation  Respiratory compensation  Arterial blood gas analysis helps to determine…

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Thromboprophylaxis In Surgery

Thromboprophylaxis is the use of mechanical and pharmacological methods to prevent the development of venous thrombosis. It is a frequently used term in the field of Surgery, as it is not uncommon for the patients to develop deep vein thrombosis following surgery.  Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can occur insidiously in…

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Surgical Wounds

Surgery is the main field of medicine that deal with wounds. There are various classifications of wound, here I've mentioned the frequently used classifications of wounds. Classification Of Wounds According to the depth of the wound Superficial wounds Only involves the dermis and epidermis Heals without granulation tissue formation and…

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Nerves Of The Upper Limb – Overview

This article is comprised of a summary of the important upper limb nerves, which includes.... Axillary nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial nerve  Axillary Nerve Nerve roots C5, C6 Branches Anterior terminal branch Posterior terminal branch  Articular branch Motor supply Anterior terminal branch Anterior aspect of the deltoid…

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