Haemochromatosis – At A Glance

Haemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disease which is caused by an impairment in iron regulation leading to accumulation of iron in the parenchyma various organs.It is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians. Incidence - 1 in 300 to 500 individuals in Caucasians  Inheritance It is an autosomal recessive disease…

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Horner’s Syndrome

We have heard Horner's syndrome like a thousand times during our med school years, but today I came across something interesting. I was amazed when I got to know that we could localize the site of the lesion just by analyzing anhidrosis. Okay then, let's get into more details. Horner's…

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Osteoporosis – At A Glance

Osteoporosis is a condition which weakens the bones, making them more fragile and increasing the risk of fracture.This can be considered as one of the most renowned diseases among elderly population and this term can be frequently heard among their community. Causes / Risk Factors Of Osteoporosis Non Modifiable  History…

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Essentials Of Electrocardiography (ECG)

Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical impulses that are generated in the heart. Electrodes are used to pick up these electrical impulses. There are altogether 12 electrodes, hence called as 12 lead ECG. For a better understanding of ECG, it is important to learn about the conduction system of…

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – At A Glance

COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 which lead to a global pandemic in 11th March 2020.  Previously it was called as novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Origin      • Corona virus is an organism that typically present in animals (Mammals, birds) - Bats     • When mutations occur these viruses have the ability to…

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Disorders Of Acid Base Balance – Overview

pH of our body is maintained at a narrow range of 7.45 - 7.45 A buffering system of our body helps to maintain this range.  This buffering system consists of acids, bases and buffers. There are two compensatory mechanism Renal compensation  Respiratory compensation  Arterial blood gas analysis helps to determine…

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Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by the excessive secretion of ADH hormone despite normal or increased plasma volume leading to water retention subsequently results in hyponatraemia. Criteria To Consider SIADH Normal renal, adrenal and thyroid functions Euvolemic hyponatraemia (Sodium level less than 135mEq/L) Hypotonic plasma osmolality…

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) – At A Glance

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is chronic inflammatory disorder of the GI tract without any identifiable cause and it is comprised of.... Ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease   It is always not possible to pathologically differentiate between these two, therefore another entity is added called "Indeterminate colitis"  Incidence  Ulcerative colitis  26 per…

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Coeliac Disease – At A Glance

Coeliac disease is a gluten sensitive enteropathy where there is an inability to tolerate gluten containing diet, as an autoimmune reaction will be triggered upon exposure to these gluten proteins destroying the mucous of the intestine leading to malabsorption. Also called as coeliac spure Gluten is abundantly found in.... Wheat…

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Paracetamol / Acetaminophen Poisoning – At A Glance

Paracetamol poisoning is a commonly encountered case in Toxicology. Toxic dose of PCM - More than 150 mg/kg Usually 24 tablets are considered to be toxic for a healthy individual.  Incidence - 150 to 200 deaths and 15 to 20 liver transplants each year in UK   Pathophysiology Of PCM Poisoning…

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