Cervical Rib & Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Cervical rib is a congenital abnormality where an extra rib arise from the seventh cervical vertebra which is located above the first rib.  Incidence : 0.3 - 0.8% of the population  60% remain asymptomatic Bilateral in 70% of cases More common in women 10% develop thoracic outlet syndrome It is…

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Anatomy Of Knee Joint

Knee joint is the largest and the most complex joint of the body. It is a hinge type synovial joint. It consists of .... Two condylar joints - Between femur and tibia One sellar joint - Between femur and patella Compartments  Knee joint has two articular compartments. Tibiofemoral Medial and…

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Benefits Of Gaming Based On Research

We always heard and saw negativity or criticism towards gaming as children. There are only a handful of children who grew up without there parents saying "You'll be blind, if you stay like this in front of the screen" or "You'll be a total failure when you grow up, if…

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Horner’s Syndrome

We have heard Horner's syndrome like a thousand times during our med school years, but today I came across something interesting. I was amazed when I got to know that we could localize the site of the lesion just by analyzing anhidrosis. Okay then, let's get into more details. Horner's…

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Postoperative Cognitive Impairment (POCD)

Cognitive disorders are common during the postoperative period, among them postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive impairment has the highest incidence. Postoperative delirium is an acute, fluctuating disturbance of consciousness characterized by disorientation, impaired focus, attention. perception and behavior following a surgery. POD takes a longer time to develop than POCD…

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Complications Of Blood Transfusion

Even though certain precautions are taken prior to blood transfusion, still blood transfusion reactions are inevitable. These reactions can vary from a mild presentations like fever, chills and pruritus to severe / potentially life threatening complications which we will discuss later. These adverse reactions are multifactorial. Most feared complication of…

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Essentials Of Electrocardiography (ECG)

Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical impulses that are generated in the heart. Electrodes are used to pick up these electrical impulses. There are altogether 12 electrodes, hence called as 12 lead ECG. For a better understanding of ECG, it is important to learn about the conduction system of…

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Methods Of Intravenous Access

There are number of routes to establish an intravenous access. Some of them are easier to perform and seen frequently in the clinical setup, but some are used in special circumstances and requires greater skill for insertion. Methods Of Intravenous Access Peripheral venous catheter Central venous catheter Tunneled lines Subcutaneously…

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The Salivary Glands

There are three large paired salivary glands and several small salivary glands that open into the oral cavity Parotid gland Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Parotid Gland Largest of all salivary glands Location : Overlies the ramus of the mandible ; Anterior and inferior to the external auditory canal ; Filling the…

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Internal Carotid Artery – Overview

Major branch of common carotid artery Origin - From common carotid artery Carotid burfucation occurs at the upper border of the thyroid cartilage (C3 - C4) Passes superiorly to enter the brain There are two internal carotid arteries (One in either side) Via carotid canal it enter into the skull…

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