Surgical Anatomy Of Femur – Overview

Femur is the largest and the strongest bone of your body.
45 cm in length. 
Anatomy of Femur

  • Upper end of femur
    • Rounded head 
      • Articulates with the acebabulum and form a ball and socket type joint
      • Femoral head forms 2/3rd of a sphere
      • Covered by a cartilage except at the central fovea where ligamentum teres is attached 
    • Neck 
      • Joins with the shaft at 125°
      • Separated from the shaft
        • Anteriorly by intertrochanteric line 
        • Laterally by greater trochanter
        • Medially and posteriorly by intertrochanteric crest 
    • Greater trochanter
    • Lesser trochanter
  • Femoral shaft
    • Rounded in shape with a anterior concavity and flattened posteriorly towards both ends  
    • Posteriorly there is a rough line – Linea aspera
    • Linea aspera splits at the inferior end becoming medial and lateral supracondylar ridges 
      • This area is called as the popliteal surface of femur
  • Lower end of femur
    • Lateral condyl 
      • Larger than medial condyl
      • Two condyls are separated from a deep intercondylar notch posteriorly 
    • Medial condyl
 
Blood Supply Of Femur
 
Femur has a very rich blood supply. 
Blood supply to the femoral head is a must to know as it can undergo avascular necrosis,
 
Blood supply of femoral head
  • Predominantly by reticular vessels that travel along the capsule of hip joint
  • Vessels travelling through the diaphysis
  • Artery in ligamentum teres – Mainly in children


Attachments Of Femur
Anterior view
Femur - Muscle Attachments

Posterior view
Femur - Muscle Attachments
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